[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network] Income inequality and health: A causal review Kate E. Pickett, Richard G. Wilkinson Social Science & Medicine, 128(2015), 316-326 Published: March 2015 Abstract / Resumen: There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Key Points: Evidence that income inequality is associated with worse health is reviewed. It meets established epidemiological and other scientific criteria for causality. The causal processes may extend to violence and other problems with social gradients. Reducing income inequality will improve population health and wellbeing. Keywords / Palabras clave: Income Distribution; Review; Population Health; Causality How to obtain this article / Como obtener el artículo: click here<http://bit.ly/1Bp593H>. [Description: Description: Description: Description: http://equity.bvsalud.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/banner-es.jpg]<http://equity.bvsalud.org/> Visit the Portal/Blog of the PAHO/WHO Equity List & Knowledge network : http://equity.bvsalud.org/ Visite el Sítio/Blog de la Lista de Equidad y Red de Conocimiento: : http://equity.bvsalud.org/es/ For additional information of the Equity List or contributions please contact Mrs. Eliane P. Santos, Advisor, Library and Information Networks - Department of Knowledge Management, Bioethics and Research (KBR). Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization - [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]> Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization Department of Knowledge Management, Bioethics and Research (KBR) Office of the Assistant Director - http://www.paho.org<http://www.paho.org/> If you want to subscribe or unsubscribe from Equidad (PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network), please click here<http://listserv.paho.org/scripts/wa.exe?SUBED1=equidad&A=1> Si desea registrarse o salir de la lista Equidad (PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network), por favor haga click aqui<http://listserv.paho.org/scripts/wa.exe?SUBED1=equidad&A=1> IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or confidential information. If you are not the intended recipient or a person responsible for delivering this transmission to the intended recipient, you may not disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission. Thank you.